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Anne Şövalye

Anne Şövalye


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Toptancı bir bakkalın sekiz çocuğundan üçüncüsünün kızı William Knight (1786-1862), 2 Kasım 1781'de Chelmsford'da doğdu. Anne'nin annesi, William Allen'ın kızı Priscilla Allen Knight (1753-1829) idi. tanınmış bir radikal ve Uyumsuz. Şövalye ailesi, Dostlar Derneği'nin üyeleriydi ve pasifist ve sosyal reformculardı. (1)

Anne köleliğe karşı mücadelede aktif oldu ve Elizabeth Heyrick'in yakın arkadaşı oldu ve 1820'lerin başlarında birbirlerine sosyal reform hakkında broşürler gönderdiler. Her ikisi de köle ticaretinin kademeli olarak kaldırılmasından ziyade derhal kaldırılmasından yanaydı. (2)

1824'te Heyrick broşürünü yayınladı. Derhal değil Kademeli Kaldırılma. Heyrick, broşüründe, İngiliz sömürgelerindeki kölelerin derhal özgürleştirilmesinden yana tutkuyla tartıştı. Bu, Kölelik Karşıtı Cemiyetin kademeli olarak kaldırılmasına inanan resmi politikasından farklıydı. Bunu "şeytani politikanın şaheseri" olarak nitelendirdi ve köle plantasyonlarında üretilen şekerin boykot edilmesi çağrısında bulundu. (3)

Broşürde Heyrick, liderlerin "yavaş, ihtiyatlı, uzlaşmacı önlemleri"ne saldırdı. "Batı Hindistan kolonilerimizde köleliğin sürdürülmesi, hükümet ve yetiştiriciler arasında çözülecek soyut bir sorun değil; hepimizin dahil olduğu bir sorun, hepimiz köleliği desteklemekten ve sürdürmekten suçluyuz. ve bu ülkenin insanları, hırsız ve çalıntı malların alıcısı ile aynı ahlaki ilişki içindedir". (4)

Örgütün liderliği, bu broşürün varlığı hakkındaki bilgileri bastırmaya çalıştı ve William Wilberforce, hareketin liderlerine kadınların kölelik karşıtı toplumlarında konuşmamaları için talimat verdi. Biyografisini yazan William Hague, Wilberforce'un kadınların siyasete dahil olma fikrine uyum sağlayamadığını iddia ediyor. (5)

George Stephen bu konuda Wilberforce ile aynı fikirde değildi ve hareketin başarısında enerjilerinin hayati önem taşıdığını iddia etti: "Kadın Dernekleri her şeyi yaptı... günü geldiğinde mitingler düzenlediler ve salonlarımızı ve platformlarımızı doldurdular; dilekçeler taşıdılar ve onları imzalama görevini yerine getirdiler... Tek kelimeyle, tüm kölelik karşıtı binanın çimentosunu oluşturdular - onların yardımı olmadan asla olmazdık. ayakta kaldı." (6)

8 Nisan 1825'te Lucy Townsend, kölelik karşıtı harekette kadınların rolü konusunu tartışmak için evinde bir toplantı yaptı. Townsend, Elizabeth Heyrick, Mary Lloyd, Sarah Wedgwood, Sophia Sturge ve toplantıdaki diğer kadınlar, Birmingham Zenci Kölelere Yardım Derneği'ni kurmaya karar verdiler (daha sonra grup adını Birmingham Kadın Derneği olarak değiştirdi). (7) Grup, "alışveriş yapanların yanı sıra dükkanları da hedef alarak, binlerce evi ziyaret ederek ve broşür dağıtarak, toplantı çağrısı yaparak ve dilekçeler vererek şeker boykotunu teşvik etti." (8)

Kuruluşundan itibaren hem ulusal Kölelik Karşıtı Toplumdan hem de yerel erkeklerin kölelik karşıtı toplumundan bağımsız olan toplum. Clare Midgley'in işaret ettiği gibi: "Yerel bir yardımcı olmaktan ziyade, kölelik karşıtı kadın toplumların gelişen ulusal ağının merkezi olarak hareket etti. Evrensel Kurtuluşun Dehası Amerika'daki ilk kadın kölelik karşıtı toplumların oluşumunu etkiledi".(9)

Anne Knight, Chelmsford'da benzer bir organizasyon oluşturmak için Birmingham Bayanlar Zenci Kölelere Yardım Derneği'nden ilham aldı. Nottingham (Ann Taylor Gilbert), Sheffield (Mary Anne Rawson, Mary Roberts), Leicester (Elizabeth Heyrick, Susanna Watts), Glasgow (Jane Smeal), Norwich (Amelia Opie, Anna Gurney), Londra'da (Mary Anne) başka gruplar kuruldu. Schimmelpenninck, Mary Foster) ve Darlington (Elizabeth Pease). 1831'de köleliğe karşı kampanya yürüten bu kadın örgütlerinden yetmiş üçü vardı. (10)

1833'ün başlarında Anne Knight, köleliğe karşı ulusal bir kadın dilekçesi düzenlemek için Londra Kadın Kölelik Karşıtı Derneği ile güçlerini birleştirdi. Parlamentoya sunulduğunda 298.785 kadın tarafından imzalanmıştır. Hareketin tarihindeki en büyük kölelik karşıtı dilekçeydi. (11)

Köleliği Kaldırma Yasası 28 Ağustos 1833'te kabul edildi. Bu yasa Britanya İmparatorluğu'ndaki tüm kölelere özgürlüklerini verdi. İngiliz hükümeti köle sahiplerine 20 milyon sterlin tazminat ödedi. Çiftlik sahiplerinin aldıkları miktar, sahip oldukları köle sayısına bağlıydı. Örneğin, Exeter Piskoposu Henry Phillpotts, sahip olduğu 665 köle için 12.700 sterlin aldı. (12)

1834'te Anne Knight, köleliğin ahlaksızlığı üzerine dersler verdiği Fransa'yı gezdi. Knight, Avrupa'nın geri kalanında tazminatsız köleliğin derhal kaldırılmasını savundu. Daha sonra, kölelik karşıtı kampanyaya katkısı, Jamaikalı azatlı köleler için bir köy Knightsville olarak adlandırıldığında tanındı. O da İngiliz ve Yabancı Kölelik Karşıtı Derneği'nde etkindi. (13)

Anne Knight, Haziran 1840'ta Londra'daki Exeter Salonu'nda düzenlenen Dünya Kölelik Karşıtı Konvansiyona katıldı, ancak bir kadın olarak konuşma izni reddedildi. İki Amerikalı delege Elizabeth Cady Stanton ve Lucretia Mott ile görüştü. Stanton daha sonra şunları hatırladı: "Eve döner dönmez bir kongre düzenlemeye ve kadın haklarını savunacak bir toplum oluşturmaya karar verdik." (14) Mott, Knight'ı "tuhaf görünümlü bir kadın - çok hoş ve kibar" olarak tanımladı. (15)

Sanatçı Benjamin Robert Haydon'ın köleliğe karşı mücadelede yer alanların bir grup portresini başlattığını fark etti. Lucy Townsend'e resimdeki kadın eksikliğinden şikayet eden bir mektup yazdı. "Şu anda Haydon'un elindeki tarihi tablonun, tarihin baş hanımı, tarihin ve gelecek kuşakların (kadın kölelik karşıtı kadın grupları) kuran kişinin adaleti içinde bulunmadan yapılmaması konusunda çok endişeliyim. Thomas Clarkson'ın kendisi olarak orada bulunma hakkı, hatta belki de daha fazlası, başarısı köle ticaretindeydi; sizinki yaygın hareket olan köleliğin kendisiydi." (16)

Resim tamamlandığında, Lucy Townsend'i veya köleliğe karşı önde gelen kadın kampanyacıların çoğunu içermiyordu. Clare Midgley, yazarın Köleliğe Karşı Kadınlar (1995), Anne Knight ve Lucretia Mott'un yanı sıra Elizabeth Pease, Mary Anne Rawson, Amelia Opie ve Annabella Byron'ın da yer aldığına dikkat çekiyor: "Haydon'ın grup portresi, kadın kampanyacıların varlığını kaydetmesi bakımından olağanüstü. William Wilberforce, Thomas Clarkson ve hareketin diğer erkek liderlerini tamamlayacak kadın aktivistlerin kamusal anıtları yok... Bu erkeklerin yazılı anılarında, kadınlar yardımcı ve ilham verici eşler, anneler olarak görünme eğilimindedir. ve kızları kendi başlarına aktivist olmaktan çok." (17)

Marion Reid yayınlandı Kadınlar İçin Bir Yalvarış Knight, daha fazla eşitlik için durumu belirttiği için minnettardı, ancak yazarın kadınların yeteneklerini tahmin etmediğini düşündü. Knight, kitabın kendi kopyasına, kadınların doğal engellerle karşılaştığını söylediği "büyük aptallık dışında mükemmel" olduğunu yazdı. Knight, kadınların doğal engellere sahip olmadığından "erkeklerin önüne eşit olarak yerleştirilenlere" sahip olduğundan şikayet etti. (18)

Dünya Kölelik Karşıtı Konvansiyon'daki erkek liderlerin davranışları, Knight'a kadınlar için eşit hakları savunan bir kampanya başlatma konusunda ilham verdi. (19) Buna, mektuplarının dışına iliştirdiği feminist alıntılarla yapıştırılmış etiketler de dahildi. 1847'de Matilda Ashurst Biggs'e cinsiyet eşitliği konusunda bir mektup yazdı. O yılın ilerleyen saatlerinde mektup yayınlandı ve kadınların oy hakkıyla ilgili ilk broşür olarak kabul edildi. (20)

Knight şunları yazdı: "İngiltere'deki yetenekli hayırseverlerin ulusumuzun bu kritik kavşağında öne çıkmalarını ve suçla lekelenmemiş tüm erkek ve kadınların oy hakkı konusunda ısrar etmelerini diliyorum... ülkelerinin meseleleri... Her iki cinsiyet ve tüm taraflar tam olarak temsil edilmedikçe ve yasaların çıkarılmasında ve uygulanmasında söz sahibi olmadıkça, söz sahibi olmadıkça ve söz sahibi olmadıkça, dünya milletleri asla iyi yönetilemezler. " (21)

Knight ayrıca Çartist harekette aktif oldu. Ancak, kadın kampanyacılara örgütteki bazı erkek liderler tarafından nasıl davranıldığı konusunda endişe duymaya başladı. Onları "sınıf mücadelesinin kadın hakları mücadelesinden önce geldiğini" iddia ettikleri için eleştirdi. (22) Knight, "Bir kadın köle olursa, bir erkek özgür olabilir mi?" diye yazdı. (23) Gazetede yayınlanan bir mektupta Brighton Habercisi 1850'de Çartistlerin "gerçek evrensel oy hakkı" olarak tanımladığı şey için kampanya yürütmelerini istedi. (24)

1847'de anonim bir broşür yayınlandı. Çalışmanın yazarının Anne Knight olduğu ikna edici bir şekilde tartışıldı. "Dünya milletleri, her iki cinsiyet ve tüm taraflar tam olarak temsil edilmedikçe ve yasaların yürürlüğe konmasında ve uygulanmasında bir etkiye, söze ve bir eli olmadıkça, asla iyi yönetilemezler". (25)

Şövalye uluslararası politikaya da dahil oldu. 1848'de evrensel erkeklik oy hakkı ile seçilen ve örgütlenme özgürlüğünü bastıran ilk Fransız hükümetiydi. Kararname, kadınların kulüp kurmasını veya dernek toplantılarına katılmasını yasakladı. Knight, bu eylemi eleştiren bir broşür yayınladı: "Ne yazık ki, kardeşim, gerçek cumhuriyetçiliğe bu kadar aykırı bir duyguyu ifade eden senin belagatli sesin Ulusal Meclis'in kalbinde duyulduğu doğru mu? sadece kadınların kulüp kurma haklarına değil, erkeklerin kurduğu kulüplere katılma haklarına da karşı mı?" (25a)

1849'da düzenlenen dünya barışı konulu bir konferansta Anne Knight, Britanya'nın iki reformcusu Henry Brougham ve Richard Cobden ile bir araya geldi. Kadın hakları konusundaki isteksizliklerinden dolayı hayal kırıklığına uğradı. Sonraki birkaç ay boyunca kadınlara oy hakkı davasını savunan birkaç mektup gönderdi. Cobden'e yazdığı bir mektupta, seçmenlerin ancak kadınların oy hakkı olduğunda, politikacıları dünya barışına ulaşmaları için baskı altına alabileceğini savundu. (26)

Anne Knight ve Anne Kent, Sheffield Kadın Siyasi Birliği'ni kurdu. İlk toplantıları Şubat 1851'de Sheffield'de yapıldı. Aynı yıl daha sonra "İngiltere Kadınlarının Adresi"ni yayınladı. Bu, İngiltere'de kadınların oy hakkı talep eden ilk dilekçeydi. Carlisle'ın 7. Kontu George Howard tarafından Lordlar Kamarası'na sunuldu. (27) Ertesi yıl, "uymak zorunda olduğum yasaları - ödemeye zorlandığım vergileri - uygulayan adama oy vermem yasaklandı". "Temsilsiz vergilendirme tiranlıktır" diye ekledi. (28)

Hiç evlenmeyen Anne Knight, yaşamının son birkaç yılını Strasbourg'un güneybatısındaki küçük bir köy olan Waldersbach'ta geçirdi ve burada, Strasbourg'un kurucusu olan papaz Jean-Frédéric Oberlin'in (1740-1826) eski evinde yaşadı. Fransa'daki Hıristiyan Sosyalist hareket ve onun büyük hayranlık duyduğu bir adam. Anne Knight 4 Kasım 1862'de öldü. (29)

Ne yazık ki, kardeşim, o halde, gerçek cumhuriyetçiliğe bu kadar aykırı bir duyguyu ifade eden senin belagatli sesinin Ulusal Meclis'in kalbinde duyulduğu doğru mu? Sadece kadınların kulüp kurma haklarını değil, erkeklerin kurduğu kulüplere katılma haklarını da gerçekten protesto etmiş olabilir misin? Bütün bunlar doğru mu?

Bir din görevlisi olarak, "İlahi Efendinin" emirlerine bu kadar aykırı bir dil konuşman mümkün mü, çünkü onu böyle çağırdığını duydum. Bu ilahi Üstat şöyle dedi: "Başkalarının sana yapmasını istediğini başkalarına da yap." İyi o zaman! Toplantılar yapmanız ve orada görüşlerinizi savunmanız yasaklansa, hoşunuza gider mi?

Ah! sözlerin üzerine düşün. Aklınızı ve sesinizi kadınların kurtuluşunun hizmetine vermenizi rica ettiğim [Nisan ayında] size yazdığım mektuptan bu yana ne korkunç olaylar yaşandı. M. Legouvé'nin birinci devrimle ilgili derslerinden birinde ne dediğini hatırlıyor musun? "Başarısız oldu," dedi, "çünkü kadınlara karşı haksızlıktı." O halde bir düşünün: Kendi bencil çıkarlarıyla daha az meşgul olan vatandaşlar, bütün erkekler ve tüm kadınlar için özgürlük ilan etseydi, birkaç gün önce meydana gelen korkunç katliamlar gerçekleşebilir miydi? Kuşatma altında mı yaşayacaksın? Ah! numara. İyi biliyorsun ki, meclislerde erkeklerin yanında bir kadın otursaydı, bu korkunç olaylar asla olmazdı. Kadınları harekete geçiren basiret ve adalet duygusuyla, baştan beri böyle korkunç sonuçlara yol açacağını öngördükleri bu tür önlemlere karşı çıkarlardı. Kadınlara yönelik bu büyük haksızlık devam ettiği sürece sefalet ve isyan devam edecektir.

Çabuk ol, sevgili vatanın adına ve ayrıca ülkem adına, zavallı İngiltere adına sana yalvarıyorum! Tarihe inanılırsa, ulusun mirasından mahrum bırakılan kadınlarının, Galyalı kadınların sahip olduğu haklara, 1515'te Anglo-Sakson atalarımdan mahrum bırakılmayan haklara yeniden dahil edilmesini talep edin. Bu korkunç önyargı boyunduruğundan kurtulun; Bu tribünün basamaklarını çık, yalvarırım, bir Hıristiyan savaşçı gibi adillerin zırhına bürünerek! İnsan hakları adına kılık ve kıyafet ayrımı yapmaksızın protesto...

Geri çekilmeyi seslendirin, böylece tüm sadık insanlar sizi duyabilsin ve Paris'in soylu başpiskoposunun örneğini izleyerek barikatları aşın, barış yasasını ilan edin, ulusunuzun ve dolayısıyla dünyanın mutluluğunu hazırlayın. O zaman, sloganıyla dünyayı çevreleyecek olan gerçek üç renkli bayrağı yükseltmiş olacaksınız: Özgürlük, eşitlik, kardeşlik - adalet, merhamet ve hakikat.

İngiltere'deki yetenekli hayırseverlerin ulusumuzun işlerinin bu kritik noktasında öne çıkmalarını ve suçla lekelenmemiş tüm erkek ve kadınların oy hakkı konusunda ısrar etmelerini diliyorum... tüm taraflar gibi, tam olarak temsil edilirler ve yasaların çıkarılmasında ve uygulanmasında söz sahibidirler ve söz sahibidirler.

Devletin yükünü taşıyan ve bu sefil vergi mükellefi ülkede vergi ödemeyen herkes için talep ettiğimiz adalet mi? 24 saatin 18 saatini çalışmak, az uyumak ve düşünmekten çok çalışmaktan muaf mı?

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(1) Edward H. Milligan, Anne Knight: Oxford Ulusal Biyografi Sözlüğü (2004-2014)

(2) Clare Midgley, Köleliğe Karşı Kadınlar (1995) sayfa 58

(3) Stephen Tomkins, William Wilberforce (2007) sayfa 206

(4) Elizabeth Heyrick, Derhal değil Kademeli Kaldırılma (1824)

(5) William Hague, William Wilberforce: Büyük Köle Ticareti Kampanyacısı'nın Hayatı (2008) sayfa 487

(6) George Stephen, Anne Knight'a mektup (14 Kasım 1834)

(7) Adam Hochschild, Zincirleri Gömün: İngilizlerin Köleliği Kaldırma Mücadelesi (2005) sayfa 326

(8) Stephen Tomkins, William Wilberforce (2007) sayfa 208

(9) Clare Midgley, Lucy Townsend : Oxford Ulusal Biyografi Sözlüğü (2004-2014)

(10) Richard Reddie, Kaldırılma! İngiliz Kolonilerinde Köleliği Kaldırma Mücadelesi (2007) sayfa 214

(11) Clare Midgley, Köleliğe Karşı Kadınlar (1995) sayfa 58

(12) Jack Gratus, Büyük Beyaz Yalan (1973) sayfa 240

(13) Edward H. Milligan, Anne Knight: Oxford Ulusal Biyografi Sözlüğü (2004-2014)

(14) Crista Deluzio, Kadın Hakları: İnsanlar ve Perspektifler (2009) sayfa 58

(15) Elizabeth Crawford, Kadınların Oy Hakkı Hareketi: 1866-1928 Referans Kılavuzu (2000) sayfa 327

(16) Anne Knight, Lucy Townsend'e mektup (20 Eylül 1840)

(17) Clare Midgley, Köleliğe Karşı Kadınlar (1995) sayfa 2

(18) Elizabeth Crawford, Kadınların Oy Hakkı Hareketi: 1866-1928 Referans Kılavuzu (2000) sayfa 327

(19) Elizabeth J. Clapp, Britanya ve Amerika'da Kadınlar, Muhalefet ve Kölelik Karşıtı, 1790-1865 (2015) sayfa 67

(20) Dale Harcayan, Fikir Kadınları (1982) sayfa 398

(21) Anne Knight, Matilda Ashurst Biggs'e mektup (Nisan 1847)

(22) Edward H. Milligan, Anne Knight : Oxford Ulusal Biyografi Sözlüğü (2004-2014)

(23) Elizabeth Crawford, Kadınların Oy Hakkı Hareketi: 1866-1928 Referans Kılavuzu (2000) sayfa 327

(24) Anne Knight, gazetede yayınlanan mektup Brighton Habercisi (9 Şubat 1850)

(25) Edward H. Milligan, Anne Knight : Oxford Ulusal Biyografi Sözlüğü (2004-2014)

(26) Anne Şövalye, Papaz Coquerel'e (1848)

(27) Ray Strachey, Neden (1928) sayfa 43

(28) Anne Knight, Richard Cobden'a mektup (13 Ağustos 1850)

(29) Elizabeth Crawford, Kadınların Oy Hakkı Hareketi: 1866-1928 Referans Kılavuzu (2000) sayfa 327

(30) Edward H. Milligan, Anne Knight: Oxford Ulusal Biyografi Sözlüğü (2004-2014)


Anne Şövalye Ruff

Anne Şövalye Ruffın büyüleyici ve renkli yorumu Banka Caddesi'nin 1890 görünümü bizim için neşeli bir karşılama olarak hizmet vermektedir Yerel Sanatçılar sayfa.

Ocak 1983'te bir Burlington County Times makalesi, geri kazanılmış dökme demir küvet pençe ayaklarından nasıl bir “Society of Friends” yaptığını ve bunları nasıl hediye ettiğini açıklıyor.

Gerçekten de, sanatsal ifadesi için tercih ettiği araç genellikle yerel kil, buluntu nesneler ve kurtarılmış ahşap ve ikinci el mobilyalar gibi geri dönüştürülmüş malzemelerdi.

Arkadaşları tarafından “Bay” Ruff olarak bilinen 81 yaşında, katılmaya davet edildiği bir grup olan Friday Ladies'in haftalık toplantılarından yola çıkarak Riverton'da büyümekle ilgili hikayelerden oluşan bir kitap yazdı.

256 sayfalık ciltli kitabı, 80 yılı aşkın bir süredir evi olan Riverton'ın geçmiş günlerini yakalar. Hayatındaki aşamalara göre düzenlenmiş bu kısa denemeler koleksiyonuyla eğlenmek ve eğlenmek için Riverton'dan olmanız gerekmez.

Eşsiz ilçemizdeki hayatın fonunda anlatılan, işitme engelli ve ev bakımı ile uğraşırken arkadaşları, tanıdıkları, akrabaları ve ömür boyu süren yüzme sevgisi üzerine derin düşünceleri hem zihne hem de ruha dokunuyor.

Anne Knight Ruff'ın hayatı ve kitabın bu 2002'de nasıl ortaya çıktığı hakkında daha fazla ayrıntı okuyun New York Times Jill P. Capuzzo'nun röportajı: “KİŞİDE Doğuştan Masalcı, Vakit Ayırdı”

William Probsting, kasaba onu Parade Mareşal olarak onurlandırdığında 2002 Riverton Temmuz Dördüncü Programında ortaya çıkan Anne Knight Ruff'ın muhteşem bir profilini yazdı.

2013'te vefat ettiğinde, Westfield Dostları Buluşması'ndaki Anma Yemeğine birçok kişi katıldı. Yıllar boyunca Bayan Ruff'un birçok eserinin alıcısı olan arkadaşlar ve aile, onları tören sırasında sergilemeye getirdi.


Şubat 2011 HSR Toplantısının Özeti

Riverton Tarih Kurumu'nun yeni web sitesinin başarılı bir şekilde kullanıma sunulmasından dolayı tebrikler. John McCormick ve Solins Mike ve Pat tarafından yönetilen web sitesi geliştirme ekibine teşekkürlerimizi sunuyoruz.

Topluluğun üyeleri, 1920'lerdeki yaşamın zengin içeriğine, güzel stereo slaytlarına ve kartpostal görüntülerine hayran kaldılar. John McCormick'in blogu Riverton, insanları ve tarihi yapıları hakkında taze ve bilgilendirici bir bakış açısıdır.

Görüntülerini web sitesinde paylaşan birçok Dernek üyesine ve arkadaşına teşekkür ederiz.

Dr. Cliff Johnson, Riverton'daki 501 Main Street'te Cole Dairy'nin sahibi olan Francis Cole'un sözlü tarihini dinlemek için Cemiyet toplantısına katıldı. 1920'de doğan ve üç yaşından beri Riverton-Palmyra bölgelerinde yaşayan Dr. Johnson, bu gece, "Senin direğini çizen kız Anne Knight Ruff ile okula gittim" yorumunu yaptı ve devam etti. Polis Şefi Maurice Beck ve devriye görevlisi Bucky Wallace'ın gücü yönettiği Depresyon sırasında Palmyra Polis Departmanı üyelerini belirlemek.

Dr. Johnson, Cemiyet üyesi Cheryl Johnson Smekal'in babasıdır. Dr. Johnson'ın diş hekimliği muayenehanesi Riverton'daki 433 Thomas Bulvarı'nda bulunuyordu ve hala o caddedeki 1869'dan kalma en eski yapı. Dr. Johnson, evi kasabada bir boya ve duvar kağıdı dükkanı işleten Coddington ailesinden satın aldı.

Riverton'ın geçmişinin gizemleri, daha fazla insan web sitesini keşfettikçe ve görüntülere, anılara katkıda bulundukça ve uzun süredir unutulmuş ancak topluluğumuza katkıları Riverton'ı Delaware kıyılarında yaşamak için çok özel bir yer haline getiren kasaba halkının yüzlerini belirledikçe ortaya çıkmaya devam ediyor. New Jersey'de nehir. – Gerald Weaber, HSR Devlet Başkanı


Notlar

Richard Ingersoll: 21 Temmuz 1644 tarihli vasiyetinde, 2 Ocak 1645'te kanıtlandı: karısı Anne (Langely) oğulları George, John ve Nathaniel, en küçük damadı Richard Pettingell, m. kızı. Joanna ve William Haines, kim m. kızı Sarah, (2. kocası Joseph Houlton vardı) kızları Alice (Josiah Walcot'un karısı) ve en küçükleri Bathsheba (daha sonra John Knight, jr. ve 1652'den önce, babası John Knight, sr. 1677 doğumlu annesi Anne ile evlendi.) Env. bir çift öküz ꌔ değerinde ve onun elli dönümlük çiftliği ਷ değerindedir.

Aşağıdaki özet, Joshua Coffin tarafından Salem Quarterly Court Records'u araştırırken yapılan bir kopyadan kelimesi kelimesine alınmıştır: "Eşime tüm arazimi, mallarımı ve malları takip etme dışında her ne olursa olsun karıma veriyorum, yani. Oğlum George Ingersoll'a büyük çayırda uzanan altı dönümlük bir çayır veriyorum. En küçük oğlum Nathaniel Ingersoll'a, John P[ease?]'den satın aldığım, üzerinde küçük bir çerçeve olan bir parsel toprak verdiğim ürün, ancak söz konusu Nathaniel, bedeni hakkında herhangi bir sorun olmadan ölürse, yasal olarak doğmuşsa, o zaman yukarıda belirtilen arazi eşit olarak sayılır. oğlum John Ingersoll ve Richard Pettingel ve oğullarım William Haines arasında paylaşıldı. En küçük kızım Bathsheba'ya iki inek veriyorum. En küçük kızım Alice Walcott'a, karımın vefatından sonra kasabadaki 10 dönüm yaylası ve çayırı olan evimi veriyorum. R (işareti) I." Bu vasiyeti Richard Ingersoll'a okudum ve onun vasiyeti olduğunu kabul etti. Jo. Endecott." Wit: Townsend Bishop.

4 Ekim 1644'te alınan envanter. Arazi ve stokun nispi değerini göstermek için, mülkün değerlemesinin bazı öğelerini veriyorum. 7 inek 𕌴, 2 genç dana ᔴ, boğa ᔷ, bir çift öküz 𕌔, 2 at ve kısrak ve genç bir tay 𕌥, 80 dönümlük bir çiftlik ᔷ. Diğer eşyaların arasında bir geyik Derisi Elbisesi vardı. (E. I. Hist. Coll. 1:12.)

O bir kayıkçıydı.7681 Richard Inkersall olarak da biliniyordu.9766 Ailesiyle birlikte 1629'da 2. Mayflower'da New England'a geldi. Bu Mayflower'ın efendisi ünlü Kaptan William Pierce'dı. Gemi 1629 Mart'ında Gravesend, Londra, İngiltere'den ayrıldı ve 15 Mayıs 1629'da Plymouth'a vardı. Richard Ingersall, karısı Anne ve çocukları George, Joanna, John, Sarah ve Alice dahil olmak üzere yaklaşık 35 yolcu vardı. Feribotu North River'da tuttu.

(REF: Büyük Göç Başlıyor: New England'a Göçmenler 1620-33, Richard Ingersoll üzerine yorumlar) 1636 Salem arazi hibesinde, Richard Ingersoll, Salem'de bize açıkça söylediği "özgür olmayanlar"ı içeren listede yer alır. o kilisenin bir üyesi değildi. 1637 Salem arazi hibe olarak, Richard Ingersoll dokuz kişilik bir aile ile gösterilir. O tarihte yedi çocuğu yaşıyordu, ancak en büyük kızı Alice zaten William Walcott ile evliydi ve kocasının evine dahil olacaktı. Bu nedenle, başka türlü kaydedilmemiş başka bir çocuk olabilir, ancak bu çocuk da 1644'ten önce ölmüş olmalıdır, alternatif olarak o yıl Ingersoll'larda yaşayan daha uzak bir akraba veya hizmetçi olabilir.

4 Ekim 1644'te alınan mülkün bir envanteri. Listelenen öğelerden bazıları şu şekildeydi: 7 inek, 34 libre iki genç damızlık, 4 libre. boğa, 7 lbs. bir çift öküz, 14 lbs. iki at, kısrak ve genç tay, 25 libre. 80 dönümlük bir çiftlik, 7 libre. Geyik derisi bir takım başka bir eşyaydı.

Richard Ingersoll'un makaleleri arasında şu tarif bulundu: "Bir adamın kel olduğunda groe duymasını sağlamak için bir metson: Biraz ateş sineği ve biraz Redd solucanı alın ve kara salyangozları ve hune arıları toplayın ve kurutun ve toz haline getirin ve karıştırın. süt veya su."

Salem'deki belirli bir evin Richard Ingersoll tarafından inşa edildiği ve Nathanial Hawthorne-House of the Seven Gables'ın aşk romanının orijinal evi olduğu iddia ediliyor.

Birkaç yıl sonra, dul Anne, Newbury'li John Knight ile evlendi ve kocasının ona vasiyet ettiği çiftlik hakkında dava açıldı. Duruşmada, damadı şu ifadeyi verdi: "Yaklaşık 45 yaşında olan Richard Pettingell, şu anda ihtilaflı olan bu çiftliğin veya arazinin dul Inkersoll tarafından John Knight ile evlenmeden önce kendisine ayrıldığına tanıklık ediyor, Sr. ve o sözlü olarak bu araziyi oğlu John Inkersoll'a verdi. Ben, Richard Pettingell doe farder, 52 yılında, adı geçen John Knight'ın Newbury'ye eve geldiğini ve karısına, Bay Pain'e donmuş balık nehrinde kereste toplama sözü verdiğini söylediğini, daha sonra rahatsız olduğunu ve ne yapmanız gerektiğini söylediğini ifade ediyorum. John Knight'ın ona yirmi şilin vaat ettiği yerde kerestemi satmak için ve söz konusu John Knight, Sr. o zaman o topraklarda hiçbir hakkı olmadığına sahip oldu. (Essex Court Files XIV 28-32) John Knight daha sonra eşiyle birlikte çiftliği oğulları John ve Nathaniel "Ingerson"a taşımaya katıldı.


Kirjoituksia

Anne Knight oli kirjoittanut kullanımı sonenkirjoja, joista osa erehdyksellisesti katsottu hänen kveekkarin nimekampansa ve nykyaikaisen naisten oikeuksia puolustavan Anne Knightin (1786-1862) mukaan. Niihin kuuluvat Okul Odası Şarkı Sözleri (1846) todennäköisesti şiirsel bakışlar (1827), Aamut kirjastossa (Lontoo, s. 1828, johdantoeron kirjoittanut Bernard Barton), Mary Gray. Tarina pienille tytöille (mukaan lukien myös Bartonin jae, Lontoo, 1831) Lyriques français: pour la jeunesse. Morceaux choisis par AK (3. e., Norwich, 1869).

Şövalye säkeet ovat hyvin muotoiltuja ve hänen tarinansa hyvin kerrottuja, mutta niissä esintyy didaktiikkaa, joka ve sovi nykyaikaiseen makuun. Otetaan esimerkki: "" Vaikka nämä eläimet [kanit] ovat niin pieniä ", jatkoi rouva Gray," heidän on todettu olevan erittäin hyödyllisiä ihmiselle. Heidän lihastansa, hyvä syödä ve pehmeä harmaa turkki, kasvaa lähellä ihoa hakkında. , tehdään hattuiksi sekoitettuna majavan kauniiseen hienoon pohjoiseen, Amerikan löydetty utelias eläin. "( Mary Gri , s. 11).


Radio54 African Panorama Yayıncısı Anne Nhira, 11 Mart 2021 bugün sabahın erken saatlerinde saat 01.00 sıralarında hayatını kaybetti.

Radio54 hayranları ve dinleyicileri tarafından popüler olarak bilinen Queen Diva, 8 Mart 2021 Pazartesi günü öğleden sonra tek başına silahlı bir soyguncu tarafından soyulduktan sonra aldığı yaralara yenik düştü.

Anne yalnızdı ve her Pazartesi rutin olarak yaptığı gibi özel duaları için yakındaki bir alışveriş merkezine gitmişti. Kardeşi Juan Nhira, birkaç hafta önce Güney Afrika'nın Bedfordview şehrinde meydana gelen olay hakkında beni uyarmak için Salı sabahı beni aradı.

Beyaz iyi bir Samaritan tarafından alındı ​​ve daha sonra hareket edemediği için hastaneye götürülmesini ayarladı. Tedavi gördü ve aynı gün sabah 5 civarında taburcu edildi. Onunla konuşmak istediğim gibi ona gitmesini istedim.

Onunla ağabeyinin telefonundan konuşmayı başardım ama o konuşmakta zorlanıyordu. İnliyor ve sol tarafında şiddetli ağrıdan şikayet ediyordu. Onu teselli ettikten sonra, yaşadığı çilenin bazı ayrıntılarını benimle paylaşmak için biraz enerji toplamayı başardı.

Ona göre, sırtından bazı ayak sesleri duyduğunda diz çökmüş ve dua ediyordu. Döndüğünde, silahlı soyguncu kafasına silah doğrulttu ve ona telefonunu vermesini istedi.

Ölen kişi kaçmaya çalıştı, ancak beceriksizce düştü ve hemen bilincini kaybetti. Son hatırladığı buydu. Silahlı soyguncu, telefonunu ve içindeki tüm detayların bulunduğu çantasını alarak kaçtı.

Bilinci yerine geldiğinde, tedavi gördüğü hastanede olduğunu fark etti. Hastane onunla ilgilendi, ancak garip bir şekilde onun iyi olduğu ve sadece hafif yaralar aldığı sonucuna vardı.

Onu daha fazla araştırdım ve daha fazlasını söylemesi için cesaretlendirmeye çalıştım, çünkü ses dokusuna ve ağladığına bakılırsa söylediğinden daha kötü olduğundan şüpheleniyordum. Bu noktada bana iştahını kaybettiğini ve sürekli kan kustuğunu söyledi.

Hemen Radio54 İstasyonu Papazımız Weston Muranda'yı ve Teknik Direktörümüz Steve Muzite'i aradım ve onlara yıkıcı Haber'i anlattım. Radio54'ün üst düzey yönetim ekibinin bir parçası oldukları için bu ikisi dışında kimseye söylemem konusunda ısrar etti.

Muzite Bey ve ben, kardeşine tıbbi masraflarına yardımcı olması ve kendisine başka bir telefon ve acilen ihtiyaç duyduğu diğer şeyleri alması için hemen biraz nakit gönderdik. Parayı aldığını doğrulamak için ağabeyinin telefonunu kullanarak bana mesaj attı.

Herhangi bir iyileşme olup olmadığını ve ağrının geçip geçmediğini duymak istediğim için hemen onu aradım. Biraz daha iyiydi, ama hala ağzından kan yayıyordu.

Ağzından kan gelmesi kesin bir iç yaralanma belirtisi olduğu için hastaneye gitmesini istedim. Geç olduğu için ertesi gün gideceğini söyledi.

Daha sonra telefonu alır almaz bana mesaj atmasını istedim ve onu hastaneye götürecek kişinin kendisi olacağı için ağabeyinin eşinin numarasını kullanarak yapacağını söyledi. Ne yazık ki, ondan son kez haber aldım.

Anne Nhira, her Salı akşamı Radio54'te yayınlanan haftalık müzik ve talk show 'The Love and life Bites' ve ayrıca her Cumartesi akşamı Afrika kıtasını etkileyen sorunları ele almak üzere önde gelen konukları davet edeceği 'The Real African Talk' Show'un Sunucusuydu. .

Ev sahipliği yaptığı konuklardan bazıları, açık sözlü bir Kenyalı Pan Afrikacı ve Avukat olan Profesör P.L.O Lumumba'dır. Radio54, önümüzdeki Salı günü Anne Nhira'ya, Zimbabwe'nin ve Afrika'nın en büyük yeteneklerinden ve toprağın kızının anısına kişisel olarak ev sahipliği yapacağım bir anma yayınlayacak.

Bu yayın sırasında ailesi, cesedinin Zimbabwe'ye geri gönderilmeye hazırlanıyordu ve orada dinlenmeye bırakılacaktı. Daha fazla ayrıntı için tavsiyede bulunacağız.

Huzur içinde yat 'Kraliçe Diva'. Sonsuza kadar özleneceksin özel arkadaşım.


Pandemiyi Nasıl Yazdım: 'Kilitli'nin Yazarı Açıklıyor

Steven Knight unpacks his new quarantine film, starring Anne Hathaway and Chiwetel Ejiofor, and the process of memorializing very recent history.

How do you tell the story of the coronavirus pandemic? How will the events of the past year — both catastrophic and intangible, global and intimate, diffuse but interconnected — be inevitably abridged for audiences of the future?

Historically, epidemics have had a way of resisting collective memory. After the bubonic plague in London, it took more than half a century before the arrival of an enduring literary account of the scourge, Daniel Defoe’s “A Journal of the Plague Year,” in 1722. The flu pandemic of 1918, which killed tens of millions around the world, left a remarkably small footprint on 20th-century literature and film.

This pandemic will be different. Contemporaneous television shows about life during Covid-19 are already available, offering previews of how posterity might remember this moment, even as it remains far from resolved. Recently, they were joined by the first major feature film to be set during the pandemic — “Locked Down” (HBO Max), in which an unhappy couple (Anne Hathaway and Chiwetel Ejiofor) uses forced downtime to plot an improbable heist at Harrods, the London department store.

I called the screenwriter of “Locked Down,” Steven Knight (the writer-director of “Locke”), in Gloucestershire, England, to talk about how he wrote the pandemic, what archaeologists will uncover about this era and the value of pre-empting the “tidiness” of history. These are edited excerpts from the conversation.

When did you first think of writing about the pandemic?

STEVEN KNIGHT It was late summer, about six weeks before we started shooting. I had started writing an exchange on Zoom between two people just for fun. It was the idea that, rather like “Locke” [the 2014 Tom Hardy film that takes place almost entirely during a long, late-night drive], you could take the limitation and do something with it. At the same time, I was talking to Doug Liman [the director of “Locked Down”] about another project, and we started talking about Zoom and lockdown and how it was affecting us. And then we started imagining that we could make a film, and talking about plots, and Harrods, and then we just did it.

There are some Zoom scenes in the movie, but obviously it changed from that initial idea. What made you go in a different direction?

KNIGHT We thought it would be a good idea to cut between Zoom and live action, so that you get to see the characters go to the real world. But we still wanted to keep it as claustrophobic as possible until we get to Harrods. We had such great actors, I think it would have been a shame to just limit them to the head and shoulders.

Did you always know who the characters were?

KNIGHT I knew I wanted a relationship that had run its course, with one person who had outgrown the other. In the normal world, they would be separating, but, because of the crisis, they’re forced to stay together. Their identities have been defined by what they do for a living: one’s a delivery driver, the other’s doing really well in a marketing company. What happens when those definitions become less important because they’re not working anymore? Do they go back to who they were when they fell in love? That’s the thing I wanted to explore, as well as the madness that was going on in London at the time.

What aspects of life amid the pandemic felt important to include? Had you been keeping notes?

KNIGHT What was interesting to me was the way that vocabulary changed, the way new words and phrases were created. People were responding to a brand-new situation, so you get expressions like “social distancing,” “new normal” or “Covid-friendly.” Even the way people talk and the way they behave on Zoom is something new. The idea of what your background is, or that who you are is identified by the bookcase behind you. If you were an archaeologist digging into this time period, you’d find all these little changes in culture starting to emerge.

Was there a moment with the screenplay when you felt confident that the movie would work?

KNIGHT At a certain point I learned that the big department stores in London had emptied out all of their super-expensive stock. They were afraid there would be riots and looting, and so, over a five-day period, all of this stuff was taken out in a kind of panic. I got talking to people at Harrods, and they said that they’d had franchise managers from places like Gucci taking millions of dollars’ worth of stuff in plastic shopping bags and getting into black cabs.

When reality offers you such an unusual dislocation of what is normal, a situation that no one has been through before, it can be quite gleeful to write about — it’s like stepping on fresh snow. It also felt like an opportunity to offer up some characters who find an opportunity. There’s the Churchill expression about never wasting a good crisis.

Were there multiple drafts of the script?

KNIGHT No, I didn’t have time. For better or worse, I would write the first act, and the production crew would start preparing to shoot it, and then I’d write the second act, they’d start preparing that, and so on.

Was it challenging working that way? With no safety net?

KNIGHT I personally love it. It’s more like theater — it’s almost live. You just have to get it out. And it felt like the right way to do it in this situation, because we wanted to prove that it can be done. It’s funny, now there are all these new ways and techniques of filming [during] Covid. But we were doing it before any of that was in place.

I think when most people think about their lives over the past year, stuck at home all day in sweats or pajamas, it doesn’t feel especially cinematic. What about the experience did you think lent itself to watching onscreen?

KNIGHT I’m always attracted to situations that enclose people. I think if you have two people stuck in an elevator for a long period, their conversation is going to be so heightened. There’s something about that environment that it gives you a shortcut into who people are underneath. And the thing that I’m interested in is how people talk, what people reveal when they’re under that sort of circumstance.

There’s a French filmmaker whose name I’ve forgotten who said, “If you point the camera at anyone and ask them to talk about themselves for four minutes, by the end of the four minutes, you will be convinced they’re insane.” In daily life, we are the delivery driver, or we are the marketing personnel, we are the thing that’s defined by our roles. But when all of that is uncloaked, when everybody is just still and can’t go anywhere, the thing they really are, I think, starts to come to the surface. I’m sure it happens in huge adventures and crises and war. But when it happens in these small situations, like in “Locke,” where it’s one man driving from one place to another, that isolation is what I see as the microscope.

The other big question that hangs over a project like this is the timing of it. I think a lot of people aren’t sure they want to revisit the spring of 2020 right now. How did you approach that problem in writing the story?

KNIGHT I’m a believer in you write what comes to you. If you have the conversation with yourself in advance, “Is this what’s going to be popular?” I don’t think I can do that. At the time we started this, I was writing lots of other things as well, but this is what kept coming up. The great thing is people have a choice. If it is painful, I completely understand that is the case for some people. But I’m hoping that doing something like this — it’s the human reaction to adversity throughout history. You try to make sense of it somehow, or you look for a silver lining.

What’s your appetite for watching movies about the pandemic?

KNIGHT Well, I think it’s going to spawn all kinds of things, just like the Second World War: novels, films, comic books. We were very anxious to be the first. We may not be the best, but we’re the first, and we did it while it was still fresh and raw. History tends to tidy things up, to find patterns and discard things that don’t fit into the pattern. And I think as this moves on, there’ll probably be a view that it had a beginning, middle and end, and that certain things were inevitable while others were never going to happen. But, in the middle of it, like a war, you don’t know who’s going to win. You don’t know what’s going to happen. And I think it’s important to capture that phase of uncertainty as it really was.


Írások

Anne Knight számos gyermekkönyv szerzője, amelyek közül néhányat tévesen tulajdonítottak Quaker névmáskájához és kortárs Anne Knight-hoz (1786–1862), a nők jogaiért küzdő kampányhoz. Ide tartoznak az Iskolai Lyrics (1846) és valószínűleg a Poetic Gleanings (1827), a Reggel a könyvtárban (London, 1828 körül, Bernard Barton bevezető versével), Mary Gray. Mese kislányoknak (beleértve egy Bartoni verset, London, 1831) és Lyriques français: pour la jeunesse. Morceaux choisis par AK (3. e., Norwich, 1869).

Knight versei jól kidolgozottak és történeteik jól elhangzottak, de olyan didaktikát mutatnak, amely nem felel meg a modern ízlésnek. Példakénti példát: "Bár ezek az állatok [nyulak] olyan kicsik - folytatta Mrs. Grey -, az ember számára nagyon kiszolgáltathatónak találják őket. Húsuk jó enni, a puha szürke szőr pedig a bőr közelében növekszik. , kalapokká alakulnak, amikor összekeverik a hód gyönyörű finom finomságával, egy kíváncsi állat Észak-Amerikában. "( Mary Gray , 11. o.).


Biyografi

Anne Boleyn’s birthdate is unknown even the year is widely debated. General opinion now favors 1501 or 1502, though some historians persuasively argue for 1507. She was probably born at Blickling Hall in Norfolk. Her father was Sir Thomas Boleyn, a minor courtier with a talent for foreign languages he was of London merchant stock and eager to advance in the world. Like most men, he chose to marry well. His bride was Elizabeth Howard, daughter of the second duke of Norfolk and sister of the third duke.

Anne had two surviving siblings, Mary and George. Their birthdates are also unknown, as is the order of their births. We only know that all three Boleyn siblings were close in age.

miniature portrait of Anne Boleyn

In 1514, Henry VIII married his youngest sister, Mary, to the aged king of France. Anne accompanied the Tudor princess as a very young lady-in-waiting and she remained in France after the French king died and Mary Tudor returned home. Anne gained the subsequent honor of being educated under the watchful eye of the new French queen Claude. This education had a uniquely French emphasis upon fashion and flirtation, though more intellectual skills were not neglected. Anne became an accomplished musician, singer and dancer.

In 1521 or early 1522, with war between England and France imminent, Anne returned home. When she first caught Henry VIII’s eye is unknown. He was originally attracted to her sister, Mary who came to court before Anne. She was the king’s mistress in the early 1520s and, as a mark of favor, her father was elevated to the peerage as viscount Rochfort/Rochford in 1525. Mary herself would leave court with only a dull marriage, and possibly the king’s illegitimate son, as her reward. Anne learned much from her sister’s example.

Anne’s first years at court were spent in service to Henry VIII’s first wife, Katharine of Aragon. She became quite popular among the younger men. She was not considered a great beauty her sister occupied that position in the family, but even Mary was merely deemed ‘pretty’. Hostile chroniclers described Anne as plain, sallow, and possessing two distinct flaws – a large mole on the side of her neck and an extra finger on her left hand. Such praise as she received focused on her style, her wit and charm she was quick-tempered and spirited. Her most remarkable physical attributes were her large dark eyes and long black hair.

The king’s attraction was focused upon her sharp and teasing manner, and her oft-stated unavailability. What he couldn’t have, he pined for all the more. This was especially difficult for a king used to having his own way in everything. Anne was also seriously involved with Henry Percy, the son and heir of the earl of Northumberland there were rumors of an engagement and declarations of true love. The king ordered his great minister, Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, to end the match. Wolsey did so, thus ensuring Percy’s unhappy marriage to the earl of Shrewsbury’s daughter and Anne’s great enmity. It was safer to blame the Cardinal than his king. Also, Henry’s jealousy revealed the depth of his feelings, and Anne quite naturally thought – if she could not be an earl’s wife, why not try for the crown of England?

When Anne avoided Henry’s company, or when she was sullen and evasive to him, he sent her from court. The king hoped that a few months in the country would persuade her of his charms. It did not work. Anne was already playing a far more serious game than the king. Later, after she had been arrested, Henry would claim he had been ‘bewitched’ and the term wasn’t used lightly in the 16th century. But perhaps it was simply the contrast between her vivacity and Katharine’s solemnity, or perhaps the king mistook the inexplicable ardor of true love for something more ominous, long after that love had faded.

It is impossible to fully explain the mystery of attraction between two people. How Anne was able to capture and maintain the king’s attention for such a long while, despite great obstacles and the constant presence of malicious gossip, cannot be explained. Henry was headstrong and querulous. But for several years, he remained faithful to his feelings for Anne – and his attendant desire for a legitimate male heir.

Miniature portrait of Katharine of Aragon

One cannot separate the king’s desire for a son, indeed its very necessity, from his personal desire for Anne. The two interests merged perfectly in 1527. Henry had discovered the invalidity of his marriage to Katharine. Now it was possible to annul his marriage and secure his two fondest hopes – Anne’s hand in marriage and the long-desired heir.

Cardinal Wolsey had long advocated an Anglo-French alliance. For that reason, he disliked the Spanish Katharine of Aragon. He now set about securing his monarch’s annulment with the intention of marrying Henry to a French princess. And if not a French princess, perhaps a great lady of the English court. Wolsey did not like Anne, and she despised him for that earlier injury to her heart. She did what she could to work against the Lord Chancellor. And Wolsey’s ambitious protégé (and successor) Thomas Cromwell became her close ally.

But Anne alone did not cause Wolsey’s fall from grace, though she took the blame for it. Indeed, ‘Nan Bullen’, as the common people derisively called her, became the scapegoat for all the king’s unpopular decisions. But it is important to remember that no one – not Wolsey, not Cromwell, and certainly not Anne Boleyn – ever controlled Henry VIII, or made him do other than exactly what he wanted. He was a king who thoroughly knew and enjoyed his position. Sir Thomas More would aptly point this out to his son-in-law, William Roper – ‘If a lion knew his strength, it were hard for any man to hold him.’ And later, when Roper commented upon the king’s affection for More, the philosopher replied that if his head would win the king a castle in France, then Henry would not hesitate to chop it off.

But most people found it easier to hate Anne than to hate their monarch. As the king’s desire for an annulment became the gossip of all Europe, she was roundly criticized and condemned. She was not popular at the English court either. Both her unique situation and her oft times abrasive personality offended many. And Katharine’s solemn piety had impressed the English court for three decades her supporters were numerous, though not inclined to face the king’s formidable wrath. In truth, Anne was sustained only by the king’s affection and she knew his mercurial temper. It is possible that she was as surprised by his faithfulness as everyone else.

As the struggle for an annulment proceeded and the pope prevaricated between Henry and Katharine’s nephew, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Anne’s position at the English court became steadily more prominent. There were at first little signs. The king would eat alone with her she received expensive gifts she began to dress in the most fashionable and expensive gowns the king paid her gambling debts since Anne, like most courtiers, enjoyed cards and dice.

The king was not too outlandish at first for he had no desire to prejudice the pope against his case by flaunting a new love. But as the delays mounted, and rumors of his new love spread, Henry realized there was no purpose in hiding the truth. By 1530, Anne was openly honored by the king at court. She was accorded precedence over all other ladies, and she sat with the king at banquets and hunts while Katharine was virtually ignored. The pretense of his first marriage was allowed to continue Katharine continued to personally mend his shirts and send him gifts and notes. But it was an untenable situation. It grated on both women. Anne perhaps taxed the king with it. To placate her, she was titled marquess of Pembroke on 4 September 1532 at Windsor Castle she wore a beautiful crimson gown and her hair hung loose. Now elevated to the peerage in her own right, she had wealth and lands of her own. But when she accompanied Henry to France on a state visit a short while later, the ladies of the French court refused to meet with her.

It is believed that her elevation to the peerage marked the physical consummation of Anne and Henry’s relationship, as well as a secret wedding. The circumstantial evidence is compelling. Anne would give birth to Elizabeth just a year later, in September 1533, and it is very unlikely that she and Henry – after waiting for years to be together – would suddenly have sex and risk an unplanned and, most importantly, illegitimate pregnancy. Secret weddings were hardly uncommon at the Tudor court. If they had a secret ceremony and consummated their relationship, then Anne became pregnant with Elizabeth just a few months later and that made a second, unquestionably legitimate wedding necessary.

Sepia-tinged sketch of Anne Boleyn by Hans Holbein the Younger

The king had his fondest wish within his grasp. Anne was pregnant with his long-awaited son, or so he thought, and this son must be legitimate. He could no longer wait upon the pope. Henry rejected the authority of the Holy See and Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, annulled his marriage to Katharine. Henry and Anne married again in January 1533 in a small ceremony. But though they were now husband and wife, few recognized the fact.

Her coronation was a lavish affair the king spared no expense. But the people of London were noticeably unimpressed. They cried out ‘HA! HA!’ mockingly as tapestries decorated with Henry and Anne’s entwined initials passed by. Henry asked, ‘How liked you the look of the City?’ Anne replied, ‘Sir, I liked the City well enough – but I saw a great many caps on heads, and heard but few tongues.’

And so her coronation was yet another reminder of her complete dependency upon the king.

Anne enjoyed her triumph as best she could. She ordered new blue and purple livery for her servants and set about replacing Katharine’s badge of pomegranates with her own falcon symbol. She chose as her motto, ‘The Most Happy’, in stark contrast to her predecessor. Katharine had been ‘Humble and Loyal’ Henry’s mother, Elizabeth of York had chosen ‘Humble and Reverent’. But humility was not a marked characteristic of Anne Boleyn.

She was pious, though not as rigid and inflexible as Katharine of Aragon. Anne’s sympathies naturally lay with the progressive thought now challenging Catholic orthodoxy with Henry’s rejection of the papacy and his creation of a new Church of England, the Reformation had come to England. It was not as revolutionary as Luther’s movement in Germany. Henry actually remained a devout Catholic, only denying what he now regarded as the illegitimate authority of the papacy. Anne knew that her marriage and future children would never be recognized as legitimate by Catholic Europe. She had to support the new church, otherwise she was no more than the king’s mistress.

And this new emphasis upon debating even the most esoteric bits of theology appealed to her nature. She was always curious and open to new ideas she never blindly acceptedThe above portrait is of Anne Boleyn, painted by Lucas Horenbout dated 1525-27. Sir Roy Strong identified the portrait. Anne wears a necklace with her falcon badge. herhangi bir şey. But this is not to deny her deep faith. As queen, she was close friends with Thomas Cranmer and she also sponsored various religious books. She had none of the hard-fought pragmatism of her daughter, Elizabeth. Religious faith was a vital part of Anne’s life, as it was for every person in the 16th century.

She entered confinement for the birth of her first child on 26 August 1533. The child was born on 7 September 1533. The physicians and astrologers had been mistaken it was not a prince. But the healthy baby girl called Elizabeth was not the disappointment most assumed, nor did she immediately cause her mother’s downfall. The birth had been very easy and quick. ‘There was good speed in the deliverance and bringing forth,’ Anne wrote to Lord Cobham that very day. The queen recovered quickly. Henry had every reason to believe that strong princes would follow. It was only when Anne miscarried two sons that he began to question the validity of his second marriage.

Elizabeth’s christening was a grand affair, though the king did not attend. This fact was much remarked-upon, but Henry confounded all by his continuing affection for Anne. He also promptly declared Elizabeth his heir, thus according her precedence over her 17 year old half-sister, Princess Mary. Anne could breathe a sigh of relief, recover, and become pregnant again.

Immediately after Elizabeth’s christening, Henry wrote to Mary and demanded that she relinquish her title of Princess of Wales. The title belonged to his heiress. He also demanded that she acknowledge the validity of his new marriage and legitimacy of her half-sister. But Mary could be as obstinate as her mother she refused. Enraged, Henry evicted Mary from her home, the manor Beaulieu, so he could give it to Anne’s brother, George. In December, she was moved into Elizabeth’s household under the care of Lady Anne Shelton, a sister of Anne’s father. It was an understandably miserable time for Mary. When told to pay her respects to the baby Princess, she said that she knew of no Princess of England but herself and burst into tears.

The above portrait is of Anne Boleyn, painted by Lucas Horenbout dated 1525-27. Sir Roy Strong identified the portrait. Anne wears a necklace with her falcon badge.

Henry was infuriated and Anne encouraged the estrangement. Her daughter’s status depended upon Mary remaining out of favor. In the two and a half years she lived after Elizabeth’s birth, Anne proved herself a devoted mother. Soon after the birth, Elizabeth had to be moved from London, for purposes of health London was rife with a variety of illnesses – sweating sickness, smallpox, and plague. Elizabeth and Mary were sent to Hatfield. Both Henry and Anne visited their daughter often, occasionally taking her back with them to Greenwich or the palace at Eltham. During these visits, Mary was kept alone in her room.

There are account books and letters which reveal certain facts about Elizabeth’s early childhood: bills for an orange satin gown and russet velvet kirtle, for the king’s heir had to be fashionably dressed a letter in late 1535, after her second birthday, from the wet nurse asking permission to wean her a plan of study in classical languages, for Anne was determined her daughter would be as educated as Mary.

The conflict with Mary dominated a great deal of Henry and Anne’s thoughts. In January 1534, the king’s new chief minister, Thomas Cromwell, went to visit Mary at Hatfield. He urged her to renounce her title and warned her that her behavior would lead to her ruin. Mary replied that she simply wanted her father’s blessing and the honor of kissing his hand. When Cromwell chastised her, she left the room. Mary, and indeed most of England, believed Anne to be the cause of Henry’s disgust with his eldest child. In truth, Henry had far more to do with it than Anne this was proven after Anne’s execution. Mary believed that she would regain her favor with the wicked stepmother out of the way but she was proven terribly wrong. Eventually, under threat of her life, she wrote the letter her father had long desired.

He and Anne also tried a gentler course with Mary their goal was to show that she had brought Henry’s displeasure upon herself and that he and Anne were quite willing – under reasonable conditions – to receive her. At their next visit to Hatfield, Anne arranged to see her stepdaughter. She invited Mary to come to court and ‘visit me as Queen.’ Mary responded with a cruel insult – ‘I know no Queen in England but my mother. But if you, Madam, as my father’s mistress, will intercede for me with him, I should be grateful.’ Anne did not lose her temper she pointed out the absurdity of the request and repeated her offer. Mary then refused to answer and Anne left in a rage. From then on, she made no attempts to gain Mary’s friendship.

The problem with Mary highlights the untenable positions Anne and Elizabeth occupied in English politics. Many of Henry’s subjects did not know who to call Princess, who was the rightful heir, and who was the true wife. Katharine of Aragon lived on, still calling herself Queen, and Mary, encouraged by the spiteful Imperial ambassador Eustace Chapuys, still called herself Princess. Furthermore, Chapuys, who openly despised Anne, told Mary that Anne was planning to have her murdered. It was a terrible lie but one that Mary, in her hysterical state, was inclined to believe. When word came that she and Elizabeth’s household was moving from Hatfield to The More, she refused to go. She believed she would be moved and quietly murdered. Guards had to actually seize her and throw her into her litter. Her distress naturally made her ill.

Elizabeth, meanwhile, was too young to notice any of this. But such events helped cement the lifelong hatred Mary would have for her half-sister. Her Spanish friends continued to spread rumors about Anne and Elizabeth, saying the infant princess was physically deformed and monstrous in appearance. To dispel this, in April 1534, Henry showed the naked infant to several continental ambassadors. In that same month, Anne announced she was once again pregnant. Nothing could have pleased Henry more. She may have had a miscarriage in February for there were rumors she was pregnant in January but nothing came of it given the heightened circumstances, it is unlikely she could have hidden her condition. Even a suspicion of pregnancy was sure to become gossip. But the main source of this miscarriage is Chapuys, hardly an impartial observer. At any rate, she was definitely pregnant again in April 1534.

sketch of Anne Boleyn by Hans Holbein the Younger

The elated king took his wife to the medieval palace at Eltham there, they sent for the princess Elizabeth. Henry was often seen carrying her about and playing with her. The king and queen soon returned to Greenwich and then Henry left on a progress, leaving Anne at the palace. This was probably out of concern for her health and lends some credence to the belief she miscarried in February. If she had, Henry would show special concern for her health, and this he did. He was supposed to meet Francis I of France in June at Calais to sign a treaty but decided not to attend, writing that Katharine and Mary, ‘bearing no small grudge against his most entirely beloved Queen Anne, might perchance in his absence take occasion to practice matters of no small peril to his royal person, realm, and subjects.’

His extra attention to Anne did not help her health. In September 1534, she miscarried a six-month-old fetus it was old enough for features to be discerned – it was a boy. Henry was bitterly disappointed. Anne was likewise. She was also angry for Henry had begun a casual affair that summer. She reproached him and Henry replied, ‘You have good reason to be content with what I have done for you – and I would not do it again, if the thing were to begin. Consider from what you have come.’ The scene was furious and overheard by her attendants. But it was a passing storm. Henry was already tired of his new mistress and, within days, Chapuys was sadly writing to Charles V of Henry’s continued affection. But there were other signs that things were not progressing smoothly.

For example, Henry had hoped to cement his relationship with Francis I by betrothing Elizabeth to Francis’s son, the Duc d’Angouleme. After Anne suffered two miscarriages, as the French ambassador reported to Francis, the French king grew wary of such a betrothal. To him, it must have seemed that Anne’s position was weakening after all, Henry had dismissed one wife because she had no sons – would he do the same to Anne? And, if he did, then what good was a marriage to Elizabeth? Of course, it was in France’s interests to promote Anne for Katharine of Aragon and her daughter were Charles V’s pawns. But his doubts highlighted the instability of Anne’s position.

This undoubtedly affected her mental and physical health. Henry was never the mercenary adulterer of legend. In fact, he was remarkably conventional in his sexual appetites, unlike his French rival. Any affairs would have been widely reported and yet, during his long marriage to Katharine of Aragon, there were just a handful of mistresses. He enjoyed being around attractive women. He was flirtatious and would joke with them, compliment them, but only rarely did he enter into a physical relationship.

But for Anne, any occasional fling was devastating, especially if it followed upon a miscarriage. Such behavior was said to indicate his displeasure with her this she could not afford. They were occasionally estranged and the effect was to increase her already-noticeable anxiety. In late 1534 Anne, accompanied by the duke of Suffolk, her uncle Norfolk, and other courtiers, visited Richmond Palace, where both Elizabeth and Mary resided. Anne entered her daughter’s rooms only to realize that the two dukes had left her. They were paying court to Mary and remained with her until Anne had left. Still, this slight could be forgotten when the Treason Act was passed in November. It was now a capital crime to deny the legitimacy of her marriage or children. By December, she and Henry had made up yet again.

A scandal occurred shortly thereafter which added further damage to Anne’s reputation. Her sister, Mary, who had been Henry’s mistress years before, married Sir William Stafford without her family or the king’s permission. Because Stafford was poor, Mary’s father was angry and cut off her allowance. She appealed to the king and Anne but they would not help. (Mary did not attend court during Anne’s reign, since her presence would have been an embarrassment for the king and queen.)

Always fascinated with rumors surrounding his English ‘brother’, Francis I decided to hedge his bets in the mercurial Tudor court. In other words, he would remain friendly with Anne and also with Mary Tudor. And so he instructed his new ambassador, Admiral Chabot, to ignore Anne when he arrived at court. Chabot was received by Henry and two days passed without any mention of the queen. Henry asked if Chabot wanted to visit her. The ambassador replied, ‘As it pleases Your Highness’ and then asked permission to visit Mary. Henry refused, but Chabot made certain everyone knew of his request. He also told courtiers that Francis wanted to marry the Dauphin to Mary when Henry reminded him of the union with Elizabeth, the ambassador said nothing. Still, Francis did enrage Charles V by acknowledging Elizabeth’s legitimacy.

It was a tedious and frightening dance for Anne. During the two and a half years after Elizabeth’s birth, she was rarely secure, certain of her position and the king’s affections. Her little daughter received every favor she could bestow Anne insisted Henry favor Elizabeth because it strengthened her position. But she was surrounded by fair-weather friends who, at the slightest sign of Henry’s disfavor, ignored her. She only trusted her brother, George, whose wife, Jane Rochford, was a viper in their nest. Meanwhile, Henry was again flirting openly with another woman. This time it was Anne’s cousin and lady-in-waiting, Madge Shelton. Anne still had influence over her husband, but knew only one way to make his favor permanent. She must bear a son. Henry would never dismiss the mother of his long-awaited heir. Her enemies would at last be silenced.

Meanwhile, Henry’s health had begun to worsen. The first signs of the illness which would kill him (occluded sinus on the leg) appeared . Headaches became frequent and severe. The king was a hypochondriac. Now unable to indulge his love of sports, he instead indulged his fear of pain and illness. And he was frequently impotent. He was in his mid-forties and increasingly obese this, combined with his other ailments, made his continued virility questionable. Certainly his ‘mistresses’ did not conceive. But the continued lack of an heir and Anne’s miscarriages must have reminded him of Katharine. How could it not? Like most of his contemporaries, the king blamed his wife when she did not conceive or carry to term.

And, like Francis I, Thomas Cromwell – that influential and brilliant man – was keeping his options open as well. He visited Mary and was rumored to promise support for her reinstatement. Anne was terrified at this loss of her one-time supporter who was also the king’s most trusted advisor. But Anne had one last chance, and in June 1535, became pregnant again. She lost that child as well, in January 1536 she was reported to have said, ‘I have miscarried of my savior.’

When her destruction came, it was rapid and unbelievable. Henry had always been one to plot against people while he pretended affection. Anne suffered the same fate as Katharine. She knew he was dissatisfied with her but he maintained their lifestyle together. And all the while, he was seeking the best way to destroy her. Katharine of Aragon died in January as well, just a few days before Anne’s miscarriage. These events, taken together, pushed Henry into action. While Katharine lived, most of Europe, and many Englishmen, had regarded her as his rightful wife, not Anne. Now he was rid of Katharine if he were to rid himself of Anne, he could marry again – and this third marriage would never be tainted by the specter of bigamy.

an 18th century portrait of Anne Boleyn

Henry’s decision to thoroughly destroy Anne baffled even her enemies. There was a possible way out which would spare Anne’s life. Henry had admitted an affair with her sister,Mary. He could have argued that was as damning as Katharine’s marriage to his brother. But he chose a more direct route. He had her arrested, charged with adultery, witchcraft, and incest the charges were ludicrous even to her enemies. Her brother George was arrested as well. His despised wife, Jane Rochford, testified about an incestuous love affair. Whether anyone believed her was irrelevant. Henry VIII wanted Anne convicted and killed. George would also lose his life, as did three of their friends. Only one had confessed to the charge, and that was under torture it was still enough to convict them all.

As queen of England, Anne was tried by her peers the main charge was adultery, and this was an act of treason for a queen. No member of the nobility would help her her craven uncle Norfolk pronounced the death sentence. Poor Henry Percy, her first love, swooned during the trial and had to be carried from the room. As a concession to her former position, she was not beheaded by a clumsy axe. A skilled swordsman was brought over from France. She was assured that there would be little pain she replied, with typical spirit, ‘I have heard that the executioner is very good. And I have a little neck.’

‘You have chosen me from low estate to be your queen and companion, far beyond my desert or desire if, then, you found me worthy of such honor, good your grace, let not any light fancy or bad counsel of my enemies withdraw your princely favor from me neither let that stain – that unworthy stain – of a disloyal heart towards your good grace ever cast so foul a blot on me, and on the infant princess your daughter.’ from Anne Boleyn’s last letter to King Henry VIII, 1536 its authenticity is debated.

She had prayed for exile, to end her days in a nunnery, but now faced a more tragic fate. She met it with bravery and wit. She was brought to the scaffold at 8 o’clock in the morning on 19 May 1536. It was a heretofore unknown spectacle, the first public execution of an English queen. Anne, who had defended herself so ably at her trial, chose her last words carefully: ‘Good Christian people, I am come hither to die, for according to the law, and by the law I am judged to die, and therefore I will speak nothing against it. I am come hither to accuse no man, nor to speak anything of that, whereof I am accused and condemned to die, but I pray God save the king and send him long to reign over you, for a gentler nor a more merciful prince was there never: and to me he was ever a good, a gentle and sovereign lord. And if any person will meddle of my cause, I require them to judge the best. And thus I take my leave of the world and of you all, and I heartily desire you all to pray for me. O Lord have mercy on me, to God I commend my soul.’ She was then blindfolded and knelt at the block. She repeated several times, ‘To Jesus Christ I commend my soul Lord Jesu receive my soul.’

It was a sardonic message to the king. Even now he waited impatiently to hear the Tower cannon mark Anne’s death. He wished to marry Anne’s lady-in-waiting, Jane Seymour. They wed ten days after the execution.

Elizabeth was just three and a half when her mother died. She was a precocious child, though when her governess visited her just days after the execution, Elizabeth asked, ‘Why, Governor, how hap it yesterday Lady Princess, and today but Lady Elizabeth?’

Anne was buried in an old arrow box since no coffin was provided. But the box was too short her head was tucked beside her. The remains were taken to St Peter ad Vincula, the church of the Tower of London, where they would later be joined by her cousin, and Henry’s fifth wife, Catherine Howard.

‘And if any person will meddle of my cause, I require them to judge the best.’
from Anne Boleyn’s speech at her execution


Anne Hutchinson&aposs Final Years 

After William’s death in 1642, ministers from Massachusetts were dispatched to force Anne to renounce her beliefs and coerce her into believing that Massachusetts would soon take over the Rhode Island territory.

Wishing to escape Massachusetts’ meddling, Anne and her children moved to the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam (now New York City), homesteading on Long Island Sound.

One afternoon in the summer of 1643, Anne’s family was attacked by Native American Siwanoy warriors at their home. Fifteen people including Anne were axed to death, their bodies burned.


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